Compaction

T.W. Reiss, Inc. Handy Reference

Compaction

Some of the factors to consider when choosing a compaction device would be the material to be compacted, it's moisture content, the site and whether it is on grade or in a trench and the depth of the material to be compacted. The material falls into two basic categories, cohesive or granular. Cohesive materials would be things like clay or topsoil, while granular materials would be like sand and gravel. Cohesive materials require impact to achieve effective compaction. The best tool for these materials in a small area or trench would be a rammer. In a larger area you could use a vibratory roller and compact the material in smaller layers or "lifts". Granular materials are easily compacted with vibration, either from a plate type compactor or a vibratory roller.


Maximum Joist Spans

For S. Pine -Douglas Fir

Size Inches on Center Span @ 40lbs/Sgft Span @ 75lbs/Sgft

2x6 .................................. 12 12.00

2x6 .................................. 16 10.50

2x8 .................................. 12 ............................. 15.92 12.00

2x8 .................................. 16 ............................. 13.92 10.50

2x10 ................................ 12 ............................. 19.92 15.25

2x10 ................................ 16 ............................. 17.33 13.25

2x12 ................................ 12 ............................. 23.92 18.33

2x12 ................................ 16 ............................. 20.92 16.00



Reinforcing Rod Sizes

Size OD Lbs per Ft

Size OD Lbs per Ft

2 ..................... 1/4 ........... 0.17

3 ..................... 3/8 ........... 0.38

4 ..................... 1/2 ............ 0.67

5 ..................... 5/8 ............ 1.04

6 ..................... 3/4 ............ 1.50

7 ..................... 7/8 ............ 2.04

8 ...................... 1" ............ 2:67

9 .................... 1-1/8 .......... 3.40

10 ................... 1-1/4 .......... 4.30


"R" Values of common materials

All values are at 1" thickness unless noted

Concrete ................................. 0.08

Hollow Concrete Block ............. 0.14

Stucco ....... : ........................... 0.40

1/2" Gypsum Board ................. 0.45

Brick ....................................... 0.11

1/2" Plywood ........................... 0.62

Framing Lumber ....................... 1.25

Airspace, non reflective ............ 1 .01

Airspace, reflective .................. 3.48

Celotex .................................... 3.03

Cork Board .............................. 3.03

Fiberglass ............................... 3.76

lsocyanurate Foamboard .......... 7.20

Styrofoam ............................... 3.57

urethane Foam ....................... 7.20


Standard (Schedule 40)Pipe Sizes

Nom size OD ID

1/8 ................. 0.405 ......... 0.269

1/4 ................. 0.540 ......... 0.364

3/8 ................. 0.675 ......... 0.493

1/2 ................. 0.840 ......... 0.622

3/4 ................. 1.050 ......... 0.824

1 ................... 1.315 ......... 1.049

1-1/4 .............. 1.660 ......... 1.380

1-1/2 .............. 1.900 ......... 1.610

2 ................... 2.375 ......... 2.067

2-1/2 .............. 2.875 ......... 0.203

3 ................... 3.500 ......... 3.068

4 .................... 4.500 ......... 4.026


Voltage Drop vs Wire Size

This table shows maximum wire length for varying drawsand wire sizes. @ 120 volts, (Double distances for 240 V)

Amps Watts #14 #12 #10 #8 #6

1 ................. 120 ..... .450 ..... 700 .. 1100 .. 1800 . 2800

5 ................. 600 ....... 90 ...... 140 ..... 225 ..... 360 .... 575

1 0 .............. 1200 .... .45 ....... 70 ...... 115 ..... 180 .... 285

15 ............... 1800 ...... 30 ....... 47 ...... 75 ...... 120 .... 190

20 ............... 2400 .................. 36 ...... 57 ...... 90 ..... 140

25 ............... 3000 .............................. 45 ...... 72 ..... 115

30 ............... 3600 .............................. 38 ....... 60 ..... 95

40 ............... 4800 ...................... : ................. 45 ..... 72

50 ............... 6000 ..................................................... 57


Sizes of Common Nails

Size Length Shank Dia. # per Pound

4d ........... 1-1/2 ............. 0.095 ................ 300

6d .............. 2 ................ 0.113 ................ 170

7d ........... 2-1/4 ............. 0.113 ................ 150

8d ........... 2-1/2 ............. 0.131 ................ 105

10d ............ 3 ................ 0.148 ................. 65

12d ......... 3-1/4 ............. 0.148 ................. 60

16d ......... 3-1/2 ............. 0.162 ................. 44

20d ............ 4 ................ 0.192 ................. 30

30d ......... 4-1/2 ............. 0.207 ................. 22

40d ............ 5 ................ 0.225 ................. 18

50d ......... 5-1/2 ............. 0.244 ................. 14

60d ............ 6 ................ 0.263 ................. 10